Dual Citizenship: Pros and Cons (and How to Attain It)

Dual Citizenship: Pros and Cons (and How to Attain It)

Dual Citizenship: Pros and Cons (and How to Attain It) was written for Playlouder by a contributing author. Please note that contributing opinions are that of the author. They are not always in strict alignment with my own opinions. –Joe.

Dual citizenship, also known as multiple citizenship or dual nationality, is a legal status that allows an individual to be a citizen of two or more countries simultaneously. 

Dual Citizenship
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This phenomenon has gained popularity in recent years as more people explore its benefits and possibilities. For example, according to Travel Pulse, inquiries into Citizen By Descent programs increased by 300% between 2019 and 2021.

In this article, we will delve into the pros and cons of dual citizenship, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, we will discuss various ways to obtain dual citizenship and the different programs available to those interested in pursuing this status.

Pros and Cons of Dual Citizenship

Dual citizenship brings about a unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Let's examine both sides to understand better the implications of holding citizenship in multiple countries.


  1. Enhanced Travel Opportunities: Dual citizens enjoy the privilege of traveling freely between their countries of citizenship. This flexibility eliminates the need for visas or permits, making travel more convenient and hassle-free.
  2. Access to Social Benefits: Holding citizenship in multiple countries grants individuals access to various social benefits, such as healthcare, education, and social security. Dual citizens can choose the benefits most advantageous to them in each country.
  3. Expanded Business and Employment Opportunities: Dual citizenship often opens doors to new business prospects and job opportunities. It allows individuals to establish businesses, work, buy real estate, and invest in both countries, broadening their professional horizons.
  4. Political Rights and Participation: Dual citizens can engage in the political systems of both countries. They may exercise their right to vote, run for office, and actively participate in the democratic processes of each nation, influencing decisions that affect them.
  5. Security and Personal Safety: Holding dual citizenship can provide an additional layer of security. In times of political unrest or instability, having alternative citizenship can offer protection and a safe haven for individuals and their families.


  1. Legal Obligations and Responsibilities: Dual citizenship includes additional legal obligations and responsibilities. Citizens must be aware of each country's laws, regulations, and taxation requirements, which can be complex and time-consuming.
  2. Conflict of Laws and Loyalties: Sometimes, the laws of one country may conflict with those of the other, creating a dilemma for dual citizens. Loyalties may also be divided, particularly during national crises or conflicts.
  3. Restricted Rights in Each Country: Some countries restrict certain rights and privileges exclusively to single citizens. Dual citizens may not be eligible for certain government positions, public benefits, or military service in either country.
  4. Travel Limitations: While dual citizenship offers greater travel opportunities, some countries may limit dual citizens entering or leaving the country. Governments can also enforce travel restrictions during times of national emergencies or conflicts.

How to Get Dual Citizenship

There are several pathways to obtaining dual citizenship. Let's explore two common methods: citizenship by investment and citizenship by descent.

Citizenship by Investment

Citizenship by Investment (CBI) programs have gained popularity in recent years as a means for individuals to acquire dual citizenship in a foreign country through a significant financial contribution. 

These programs provide a legitimate and legal pathway for individuals and their families to obtain a second citizenship, opening up many opportunities for personal and business growth

While each country's CBI program has unique requirements and investment thresholds, the underlying principle remains the same: applicants make a substantial economic contribution to the host country, and in return, they are granted citizenship.

The investment options available under CBI programs can vary widely, allowing applicants to choose the one that best aligns with their financial capacity and objectives. Typically, these investment options include:

  1. Real Estate Investments: Many countries offer CBI programs that allow applicants to invest in real estate, such as buying residential or commercial properties or investing in development projects. 

The real estate investment route provides an opportunity for capital appreciation. It allows applicants to sell their properties after a specified holding period, thus potentially recovering a portion of their investment.

  1. Business Investments: Some CBI programs require applicants to invest in and establish a new business or substantially invest in an existing local business. 

Host countries aim to foster economic growth and job creation by encouraging entrepreneurial activity, benefiting both the investor and the local community.

  1. Government Bonds: Investing in government-approved bonds is another option specific CBI programs offer. By purchasing these bonds, applicants provide the host country with much-needed capital, which can be used for various development projects and public initiatives.
  2. Contribution to Development Funds: Many CBI programs have established government-run development funds that applicants can contribute to gain citizenship. 

These funds are utilized to finance infrastructure projects, education, healthcare, and other public welfare programs, thus directly impacting the country's development.

Countries that have Citizenship by Investment the Programs

Several countries offer citizenship by investment programs, including but not limited to Malta, Cyprus, St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, and Grenada. These programs provide an avenue for individuals to obtain dual citizenship and benefit from its advantages.

Citizenship by Descent

Citizenship by descent, often referred to as jus sanguinis, is a widely recognized method for individuals to obtain dual citizenship based on their ancestral heritage. 

Unlike citizenship by birthplace (jus soli), acquired by being born within the territory of a country, citizenship by descent is rooted in the principle of blood ties to a nation. 

Under this provision, an individual can claim citizenship in a country if they can prove a direct familial connection to a citizen of that country, usually through parentage, grandparents, or, in some cases, even further back in the family lineage.

The process of acquiring citizenship by descent can vary from country to country and may involve different requirements and documentation. Typically, the following key points are involved in the process:

  1. Establishing Ancestral Connection: To be eligible for citizenship by descent, applicants must demonstrate a clear and unbroken bloodline to a citizen of the target country. 

This often involves providing relevant birth certificates, marriage certificates, and other legal documents as evidence of the familial relationship.

  1. Understanding Citizenship Laws: Each country has its citizenship laws, and eligibility criteria for citizenship by descent may vary. Some countries may require that one or both parents or even grandparents hold citizenship at the time of the applicant's birth. 

Additionally, there might be limitations on how many generations can claim citizenship by descent, so it's crucial to research and understand the country's specific laws.

  1. Registering or Applying: Depending on the country's regulations, applicants may need to register their claim for citizenship by descent with the relevant government department or embassy. 

In some cases, a citizenship application might be required, along with supporting documentation to prove the ancestral link.

  1. Document Authentication: Authenticating and translating official documents, such as birth certificates and marriage certificates, may be necessary when applying for citizenship by descent. Some countries might require these documents to be apostilled or notarized to ensure validity.
  2. Waiting Period and Processing Time: The processing time for citizenship by descent applications can vary significantly. Applicants should prepare for a potentially lengthy waiting period before citizenship is granted.

Countries that Have Citizenship by Decent Programs

Many countries, including Italy, Ireland, Germany, Poland, and Greece, have citizenship by descent programs. These programs enable individuals to establish a connection with their ancestral roots and acquire dual citizenship through their lineage.

Any Other Type of Citizenship Program

Apart from citizenship by investment and citizenship by descent, additional citizenship programs may be available in certain countries. 

Other legal ways to obtain citizenship in countries around the world include naturalization (residency-based application), marriage to a citizen, employment-based pathways, unique talent or skill-based considerations, refugee or asylum status, citizenship through military service, citizenship for stateless individuals, and citizenship through international adoption. 

Each country has citizenship laws and policies, meaning eligibility criteria may vary widely. Applicants should thoroughly research and seek professional guidance to navigate the specific requirements for obtaining citizenship in their desired country.

Embracing Dual Citizenship: A World of Opportunities

Dual citizenship offers a range of benefits, such as enhanced travel opportunities, expanded business prospects, and increased political rights. 

However, it also presents challenges, including legal obligations, conflicts of laws and loyalties, and restricted rights in each country. 

Those interested in obtaining dual citizenship can explore avenues such as citizenship by investment and citizenship by descent, depending on their circumstances and preferences. 

It is crucial to thoroughly research the requirements and implications of dual citizenship before embarking on the journey. Pursuing dual citizenship should align with an individual's goals and aspirations.